Greece sneezed and the world economy caught the flu. The fact that troubles in Greece can wreak such global havoc is amazing. Greece is tiny. By population it is roughly the size of Ohio and its GDP is smaller than Maryland’s. Nevertheless, despite its diminutive stature, its outsized impact is being felt in almost every corner of the world. In the second quarter alone, renewed concerns about Greece and the euro zone helped spark a flight to quality that reduced the value of global equities by more than $1.7 trillion. Of course, there are other factors at play besides Europe, but the ongoing drumbeat of bad news from Greece and the euro zone is clearly taking its toll.
World equity markets fell 5.8 percent in the second quarter, with riskier markets taking the biggest hits. U.S. large cap stocks fared better than most, falling only 3.2 percent. Developed international markets dropped 7.2 percent and emerging markets slid 8.9 percent.
On the other hand, bonds did well and long treasuries did best of all. Thirty-year treasuries gained 12.6 percent on the quarter after falling nearly 8 percent in Q1. Ten-year treasury notes gained 5.8 percent as it’s yield fell to within a hair’s breadth of its lowest level ever. Other fixed income sectors had a much more muted response to falling rates as their interest rate sensitivity was offset by credit spread widening. It was definitely a “risk off” quarter.
Contagion from Europe is also hitting the real economy. After three years of decent performance, manufacturing in the U.S. and overseas is showing signs of weakness. In June, the ISM Purchasing Managers Index signalled contraction for the first time since mid-2009. In addition, three out of four surveys produced by regional Federal Reserve banks now show that manufacturing in their regions is sluggish at best. Even China is reporting slower growth as stagnant demand from Europe dampens the Chinese manufacturing outlook.
The employment situation is another concern. The U.S. economy added 677,000 jobs during Q1, but only 225,000 in Q2. Unemployment remains sticky at 8.2 percent while underemployment remains stubbornly high at 14 percent. The work force participation rate is falling dramatically faster than in the past and is now three percentage points lower than before the crisis. The fact that today’s labor force participation is three percentage points lower than pre-crisis levels means the U.S. unemployment rate is probably closer to 11 percent.